Mars: The Ultimate Guide

Mars Facts

  • Planet type: terrestrial
  • Radius: 3,396 km
  • Mass: 6.417 × 10²³ kg
  • Aphelion: 249.2 million km
  • Perihelion: 206.6 million km
  • Average distance from the Earth: 225 million km
  • Surface temperature: −143 °C to 35 °C
  • Solar day length: 24 h 39 m 35 s
  • Sidereal day length: 24 h 37 m 22 s
  • Year length: 686.98 Earth days
  • Age: 4.503 billion years
  • Named after: Roman god of war

How big is Mars?

Mars’ size

Is Mars bigger than the Earth?

Mars’ orbit and rotation

How long is a year on Mars?

How long is a day on Mars?

Does Mars have seasons?

How far away is Mars?

How far is Mars from the Sun?

How far is Mars from the Earth?

How long does it take to get to Mars?

Missions to Mars

What is Mars made of?

Formation of Mars

Mars’ structure

Mars’ surface

Mars’ atmosphere

Does Mars have a moon?

Upcoming Events

October 7: Mars at solar conjunction

December 2: Conjunction of the Moon and Mars

December 31: Lunar occultation of Mars


What is the gravity on Mars?

What color is Mars?

What is the temperature on Mars?

How many rovers are on Mars?

Did you know?

  • Mars can boast the largest volcano in the entire Solar System — Olympus Mons. With a height of 21 km, it stands about 2.5 times taller than Mount Everest.
  • Mars’ larger moon, Phobos, gradually gets closer to the planet at a rate of about 2 cm per year. In 50 million years, Phobos will either crash into Mars or disintegrate to form a ring around the Red Planet.
  • Billions of years ago, Mars looked very similar to the Earth. Large portions of the planet’s surface were covered with liquid water, and there may have been primitive life forms in the oceans. However, eventually, the Red Planet lost most of its atmosphere and dried up.
  • During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many astronomers observed a network of canals on the Martian surface. Some believed them to be irrigation canals constructed by an alien civilization. However, it turned out to be an optical illusion.



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